Building Team Efficacy

I have had the pleasure of working with collaborative teams of teachers who are in the beginning stages of their PLC journey for ten years. Over that period of time, I have had the opportunity to witness some phenomenal teams and I have had the opportunity to witness some very dysfunctional teams. What separates the two? The answer is efficacy.

Efficacy is simply defined as the ability to produce a desired or intended result. This may be defined simply, but there is a high level of coordination and focus required to achieve collective efficacy. In order to produce a desired result, the team must first agree on what result that want to produce, agree on the methodology to produce it, and work together collaboratively through the process. Wayne Hoy, from Ohio State University, provides a tool that helps teachers measure where they are on the efficacy continuum and you can access the tool at this link:

In a PLC, the desired result that teams work to accomplish is student learning. Not just learning for a few, but a PLC team works towards learning for each and every student. My experience has taught me that educators tend to universally embrace this concept philosophically, but become stagnant when they do not have the tools, structures, and attitudes necessary to bring that wish to reality. If frustration sets in, teams can start to lean of psychological defense mechanisms that make the process even harder.

So, in ten years of observing, guiding, and coaching teams there are two common threads that all of the teams with high efficacy possessed; they kept their collaborative conversations focused on the four essential PLC questions and they never spoke negatively about students, parents, or colleagues. These might sound like simple principles, but they become the foundation for powerful collaboration.

  1. Keep the collaborative focus on the four essential questions; What do we want students to learn? How do we know if they have learned? How do we respond when students don’t learn? and How do we respond when students have learned? These four corollary questions were designed to keep the collaborative team focused on the real work, student learning. To stay totally focused on these corollary questions takes discipline and peer pressure. When times get tough, it is easy to start to venture into other topics and vent frustration over things that are outside of our control. Make a commitment to stay focused on these four questions and your efficacy will increase.
  2. Avoid speaking negatively about students, parents, or coworkers. One of the biggest issues that we hear from schools struggling with the PLC process is that the collaborative meeting can turn into a “complaint session.” Complaining is the by-product of frustration and it is very counterproductive. It breeds pessimism and a negative co-dependence with colleagues that prevents the team from finding quality solutions to problems because they are consumed by the negative atmosphere that they have collectively created. Students, parents, and coworkers are flawed and imperfect, but spending precious time venting to others about their imperfections only serves to undermine our professional effectiveness.

I would highly suggest that any school or team struggling with getting good results from their collaborative teams try my advice. What do you have to lose? If you apply these two simply principals with fidelity, I am confident that your teams will soar and your students will be the ultimate beneficiaries.


  1. I heard you during our professional development today. Your presentation was awesome and inspired me to make some changes. I have thought some of the very concerns you addressed today. Thanks for your endeavors in promoting social change.

  2. What a fantastic day today! I enjoyed every minute! Thank you for your wisdom, grace, and humor! I am a teacher in Temecula. I teach kids with IEP’s. You validated so much for me as well as other’s in the room. you have a new fan base!

  3. This post has a lesson and it is for me. Everything is explained in a very good manner and I think you have beautifully summed it up with an eye opening ending.

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